Gut bacteria may cause weight gain

The following article is one more bit of information explaining how amazing our bodies are but also points to the fact that our bodies can get out of balance because of the foods we eat, antibiotics we take or those that are in our food supply and by other environmental factors. This imbalance can start a domino effect leading to a multitude of health-related issues.

I know first-hand the ill effects of having a gut imbalance but also have found the solution to restoring my good health. Imbalances in the gut called dysbiosis can be hard to recognize if you don’t know the signs or symptoms for which to look. When the digestive system is out of balance, the following symptoms may occur:

* Bloating, belching, burning, flatulence after meals
* A sense of fullness after eating
* Indigestion, diarrhea, constipation
* Systemic reactions after eating
* Nausea or diarrhea after taking supplements
* Rectal itching
* Weak or cracked finger nails
* Dilated capillaries in the cheeks and nose in the non-alcoholic
* Post-adolescent acne or other skin irritations such as rosacea
* Iron deficiency
* Chronic intestinal infections, parasites, yeast, unfriendly bacteria
* Undigested food in the stool
* Greasy stools
* Skin that’s easily bruised
* Fatigue
* Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
* Chronic vaginitis (vaginal irritation)

(This list borrowed from Women to Women; accessed 3/7/10)

If your experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, you might have dysbiosis of the intestinal tract. Some simple steps can help you restore your health. For the help you need, contact me at Lori@goodhealthconsulting.com to set up an appointment to help you find solutions and get back to good health.

By ALICE PARK of Time magazine

If you’re fighting the battle of the bulge, most of your attention – and frustration – is probably aimed at your midsection. It makes sense, since that’s where the extra pounds tend to gravitate, especially with the creep of middle age, piling on to form that dreaded spare tire.

But a growing body of research suggests there’s another, less visible reason to focus on your gut if you want to lose weight. Scientists led by Andrew Gewirtz at Emory University reveal that your intestines harbor a universe of bacteria – the so-called gut microbiota – that may play an important role in whether your body will store the food you eat as extra pounds.

Gewirtz’s team, including researchers at Emory, Cornell University and the University of Colorado at Boulder, became intrigued by the relationship between gut bugs and weight when they noticed that lab mice lacking a certain protein had more of the bugs than other animals and were about 15% heavier. These mice also had a higher level of inflammation, which the authors explain in their paper published online Thursday in Science Express is what may account for the extra weight.

Inflammatory signaling can promote a condition called metabolic syndrome, which causes weight gain, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels and a higher risk for developing diabetes and heart disease.

The fatter mice in Gewirtz’s study had been bred to lack a protein known as toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), which most intestinal cells sprout on their surface. Its job is to recognize and bind to the whiplike flagella that bacteria use to move around.

TLR5 acts as a traffic cop for controlling the mass of pathogens living in the intestine; without it, the normally harmless gut bacteria tend to overflourish and expand in number.

When that happens, the study found, it triggers an inflammatory state, as the body attempts to respond to the increasing population of bugs, and at the same time makes cells less sensitive to insulin. In a way, inflammatory factors and insulin compete for the attention of the same intestinal cells; if the cells are busy responding to inflammatory factors, then they are less likely to take up glucose and process it effectively.

Such a desensitization to insulin and glucose then leads to the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, such as weight gain, high cholesterol and triglyceride levels and elevated blood pressure – which were all present in the TLR5-deficient mice.

“We don’t think the bacteria are directly making the mice eat more, but the bacteria are causing low-grade inflammation, which causes insulin resistance and then makes the mice eat more,” says Gewirtz.

To test that theory, the researchers conducted a series of experiments, the most illuminating of which revealed that when the TLR5-deficient mice were given unrestricted diets, they ate 10% more than normal mice, and that even when their food was limited, they were still less sensitive to insulin than their normal counterparts.

The finding was confirmed when the team transferred the bacterial gut population from TLR5-deficient mice into animals that were specially bred to have no immune system, making them incapable of rejecting foreign cells and bacteria. When these animals received the teeming gut world of the TLR5-deficient mice, they too began eating more and developed the same metabolic-syndrome symptoms that their donors had. In other words, the obesity profile of the heavier mice had been transferred to normal mice.

“So, applying the logic to humans,” says Gewirtz, “we know that to gain weight and become obese, [it] requires you to eat more. The question is, Why do people eat more? Our results suggest that one reason people might be eating more is because of changes in their intestinal bacteria.”

A more fundamental question, then, is, What causes changes in gut microbiota? Many things, says Gewirtz, including the use of antibiotics, cleaner water and improved sanitation and hygiene in general, which influences the type and amount of microbes that reside in the intestines. In the current study, scientists found that in TLR5-deficient animals, the total percentage of 150 species of bacteria in the gut was three to four times higher than in normal mice, while 125 other types of bacteria were less common.
“We don’t have a sense of which is more important yet – that some of those species are missing, or that some are in greater abundance,” he says. The net effect, however, is that in the absence of TLR5, the community of microbes changes and, as Gewirtz says, “when the intestinal bacteria is changed, the host response changes with them, and that may predispose you to a variety of diseases of which obesity and metabolic syndrome are perhaps the most mild.”

Studying those changes is the next step for scientists like Gewirtz who want to understand the precise link between intestinal microbiota and obesity. An important part of that investigation will involve having an accurate map of the genetic makeup of those gut bugs. And in a separate paper published Wednesday in Nature, an international group of scientists generated the most comprehensive genetic map to date of human gut microbes, using 124 human fecal samples that gives scientists just the critical window they need to figure out which species of bugs tend to reside in our intestines and which may contribute to weight gain.

While Gewirtz’s latest findings are limited to mice, experts believe they may be just as applicable to humans; previous work on gut microbiota has found that obese individuals tend to have a makeup of pathogens in their intestines different from that of people who are of normal weight.

“Our results suggest that the tendency to eat more may not only be driven by the fact that food is cheaper and more available, but by a change in the bacteria in the intestines,” he says. “People may be eating too much because their appetite is stronger due to a low-grade inflammation they have, which could be due to changes in their gut bacteria relative to what their grandparents or someone else might have had 50 years ago.”

If that’s true, then studies like this one could open new doors into understanding the myriad ways that pathogens like bacteria can cause disease – including methods that have nothing to do with infection.

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About admin
Passionate in her concern for people, Lori Drummond has dedicated herself to helping others gain better health through better nutrition. That's why Good Health Consulting Inc. exists. The lifelong wellness disciple knows there are no magic wands to a healthy life, but that amazing results can follow careful, committed choices. A registered, clinical dietitian and learning-hungry entreprenuer, Lori wants to share her compassionate competency with you so that you might have a more active, extended life. So much life awaits you. Start making good choices today that will benefit you and your loved ones for years. Call Lori at 786-390-3540 or write to her at LDrummond_RD@earthlink.net

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